Free High School Science Texts


Free High School Science Texts
RW James Building, University of Cape Town
Rondebosch 7701, South Africa


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What is the Free High School Science Textbook?
The FHSST is the contribution of a group of young scientists towards furthering science education in South Africa. We aim to provide a free science textbook for Grades 10 - 12 to all South African learners.

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Physics
Chemistry
Mathematics
Life Sciences
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Computer Literacy


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Physics  |  Chemistry  |  Maths

Status: Chemistry


Chapter Section Subsection Status
Chemical Bonding   
"What is a molecule?  
""The molecule 
""Giant molecules 
""Van der Waal's forces 
"Typs of bonds  
""Ionic bonds 
""Formation of ionic crystals 
""Covalent bonds 
""Polar covalent bonds 
""The metallic bond 
"Representation of molecular structure  
""How do we represent molecules? 
""Lewis structures 
""Couper structures 
"The shape of molecules  
""Molecular shape 
""Linear molecules 
""Angular molecules 
""Pyramidal molecules 
""Tetrahedral molecules 
Reactions   
"Ionic reactions  
""What are ionic reactions? 
""Precipitation reactions 
""Formation of gases 
Hydrogen   
"The element  
"Chemical properties  
"Metal hydrides  
"Water  
Oxygen and oxides   
"The element  
"Reaction with metals  
"Reaction with non-metals  
"Some reactions of oxides  
"Combustion  
Carbon, its oxides and carbonates   
"The element  
"The combustion of carbon  
"Carbon dioxide  
"Carbon monoxide  
"Carbonates  
Reduction and Oxydation Reactions   
"Introduction  
""Oxidation and reduction 
""Redox reagents 
"Balancing redox reactions  
""The ion-electron method 
"The Cu-Zn electrochemical cell  
""Direct electron transfer 
""The Cu-Zn cell 
"Standard electrode potentials  
""The cell potential 
""The standard hydrogen electrode 
"Examples of electrochemical cells  
""The dry cell (Leclanchť cell) 
""The lead-acid accumulator 
""The fuel cell 
"Electrolysis  
""Introduction 
"Electrolysis of water 
"Extraction of aluminium  
"Electrorefining of copper  
"Electroplating  
"Faraday's laws of electrolysis  
Chemical Equilibrium   
"Reaction rates  
""Reactants and products 
""Definition of the reaction rate 
""Initial rates 
""Factors affecting reaction rates 
"Energy changes in chemical reactions  
""Exothermic and endothermic reactions 
""The energy of activation 
"Chemical equilibrium  
""Reversible reactions 
""The equilibrium constant 
""Le Chatelier's principle 
"The common ion effect  
""Equilibrium in solution 
""The solubility product 
""The common ion effect 
Acids and Bases   
"Introduction to acids and bases  
""Reactions of acids 
""Reactions of bases 
""The Arrhenius theory 
"The Lowry-Br√łnsted theory  
""Definition of acids and bases 
""Polyprotic acids 
""Amphiprotic substances 
"Strength of acids and bases  
""Ionization of acids 
""The ionization constant 
""Ionization of bases 
"The pH scale  
""The ionization of water 
""The pH scale 
"The hydrolysis of ions  
""The pH of salt solutions 
""The reaction of ions with water 
"Acid-base titrations  
""Measurements of reacting volumes 
""Acid-base indicators 
""Titration curves 
Nitrogen and Nitrogen Compounds   
"The element  
"Ammonia  
"Nitrous oxide  
"Nitric oxide  
"Nitrogen dioxide  
"Nitric acid  
Sulphur and Sulphur Compounds   
"The element  
"Sulphur dioxide  
"Sulphur trioxide  
"Sulphuric acid and sulphates  
"The contact process  
"Hydrogen sulphide  
Halides and Halogens   
"The elements  
"Chlorine  
"Hydrogen chloride  
"Halides  
Organic Chemistry   
"Introduction  
""What is organic chemistry? 
""Structure of organic compounds 
""Isomerism 
"Hydrocarbons  
""Alkyl groups 
""The IUPAC nomenclature 
""Alkenes 
""Alkynes 
""Reactions of hydrocarbons 
""Haloalkanes 
"Alkanols, carboxylic acids and esters  
""Alkanols 
""Carboxylic acids 
""Esters