Greek symbols are very important in equations: , , . eLyXer offers a complete set in both upper case: and lower case: . Also the AMS italicized upper case: .
eLyXer supports the whole set of math symbols in John D. Cook's list: . It can also render a few more: . You also get all symbols from Markus Kuhn's list: .
There are other symbols like arrows: , or geometrical shapes: , . eLyXer offers limited support for them. You might also want to use financial symbols in formulae: .
Equations look good when items are properly separated. The main separation is the Medium Mathematical Space: .
Note: if you are viewing the non-Unicode version math.html of this page then you are in fact seeing midspaces, which are very similar but not exactly the same: for medium mathematical spaces versus , where . Try out the Unicode version math-unicode.html — and viceversa. You can check out what version this page is in the page title.
The command \raisebox is useful to, surprisingly, raise a little box,
Like \mbox, it puts its content in a text box. It can also be used just for spacing: .
There are other spacing commands: \hspace: , protected space: , and (at “block level”) \vspace: .
There should be 1 cm of vertical space above this paragraph.
By default, letters denote variables and are taken from the \mathnormal font, which is italic, , with the exception of upright capital Greek letters, .
Function names should be upright: .
Mathematical fonts used in equations include (\mathrm), (\mathsf), (\mathtt), (\mathbf), (\mathscr), (\mathcal), (\mathbb), and (\mathfrak). For the latter, some single characters are translated to their Unicode equivalents: , , .
Regular text in a formula can be achieved via text font commands like \textrm: , via boxes like \mbox (prevents line breaks): , or the AMSmath \text macro (scales like math symbols) . The content of an mbox is processed in LaTeX text mode. This allows text font commands, e.g. a switch to sans-serif-bold-italic, or the phonetic alphabet: .
Units should be written upright, either with \mathrm or with macros from the units package, e.g. as simple unit, , with magnitude, , with fractional unit, , or with a fraction before the units, , .
should appear as in italics, and «lim» in plain style. In display mode, a limit must appear below the main symbol:
Limits are also used in sums and integrals:
where the sum’s limits should appear below () and above () the . The placement of the integral limits depends on the document class: LaTeX standard classes place them right to the . Limits are shown to the right in inline formulae: and
The placing of limits can be configured with the \limits and \nolimits macros:
An inline array is always shown in the same line. In display mode, the array is shown on its own line:
Apart from that the appearance should be the same.
Arrays are separated by variable-size brackets: which might also differ on right and left or use the empty opening or closing: . There are also fixed-size big brackets, e.g. .