This is the Manual for the rt-liberation system
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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
|• Introduction:||Introduction to rt-liberation.|
|• Installation:||Install rt-liberation on the system.|
|• Configuration:||Setup rt-liberation to work on the system.|
|• Queries:||Retrieve particular tickets from the server.|
|• Ticket Browser:||Browse the query results.|
|• Ticket Viewer:||Interface to query results.|
|• Gnus Integration:||Sending email to the RT server via Gnus.|
|• Tracking Updates:||Keeping up to date with ticket changes.|
|• Batch Operations:||Performing operations on batches of tickets.|
|• Local Storage:||Associate arbitrary data with tickets.|
Copying and license
|• Copying:||The GNU General Public License gives you permission to redistribute rt-liberation on certain terms; it also explains that there is no warranty.|
|• The GNU FDL:||The license for this documentation.|
|• Concept Index:|
|• Function Index:|
|• Variable Index:|
|• Keybinding Index:|
— The Detailed Node Listing — Queries
|• Query Compiler:||Compiling Emacs Lisp to TicketSQL.|
|• Query Language:||A description of the Sexp-based language.|
|• Ticket Browser Display:||How tickets are displayed in the browser.|
|• Ticket Browser Sorting:||How tickets are sorted in the browser.|
|• Ticket Browser Filtering:||How to filter tickets out of the browser.|
|• Multiple Ticket Browsers:||More than one ticket browser buffer.|
rt-liberation is a GNU/Emacs package for working with the Request Tracker (henceforth abbreviated as just “RT”) software from Best Practical Solutions. RT has an interactive Web interface, a command line interface (the “RT CLI”), and a REST interface. rt-liberation uses the RT REST interface to communicate with the RT server.
rt-liberation allows sending search queries to the RT server, browsing the resulting tickets, viewing the tickets’ contents and performing operations on the tickets.
rt-liberation is available via GNU ELPA. Invoke M-x list-packages and choose to install the rt-liberation package.
If you install rt-liberation manually, by copying the code to your machine, instead you’ll need to tell Emacs where to find it, and then tell Emacs to load the package:
(add-to-list 'load-path "/PATH/TO/rt-liberation/")
rt-liberation needs to be configured in your ~/.emacs, an ~/.rt-liber file, or similar.
Tell rt-liberation where to find the RT server’s REST interface:
(setq rt-liber-rest-url "rt.example.org")
In order to authenticate with the RT server instance you need to provide credentials. rt-liberation looks for these in the variables rt-liber-rest-username and rt-liber-rest-password. You can set these directly:
(setq rt-liber-rest-username "someuser" rt-liber-rest-password "somepassword")
You can also leave these values unset (
nil), in which case
rt-liberation will look for the credentials in a Netrc file via the
auth-source library (see: See Emacs auth-source),
under the machine name "rt-liberation":
machine rt-liberation login someuser password somepassword
rt-liberation can issue a command to “take” a ticket (that is, assign it to yourself). For this the variable rt-liber-username must be set:
(setq rt-liber-username "someuser")
rt-liberation can launch a Web browser to visit a ticket. For that to work the base URL needs to be set in rt-liber-base-url. For example:
(setq rt-liber-base-url "https://rt.foo.org/")
A typical RT server is meant to manage a large amount of tickets. Much more that would be convenient to view all at once. Instead queries are used to view only a subset of the tickets on the server.
rt-liberation has its own Sexp-based query language which maps to RT’s TicketSQL language.
|• Query Compiler:||Compiling Emacs Lisp to TicketSQL.|
|• Query Language:||A description of the Sexp-based language.|
In order to browse and view tickets a list of needs to be requested from the RT server. Typically the tickets answer some kind of criteria, for example “tickets no older than a week owned by me which have \“foobar\” in their subject line”. In RT these criteria are formulated with “TicketSQL” queries; a structured query language specific to RT.
rt-liberation provides a query compiler function to compile Emacs Lisp symbolic expressions into TicketSQL. The query compiler supports a number of TicketSQL tokens.
rt-liberation’s Sexp-based query language covers a portion of the TicketSQL language. Here are some of the supported TicketSQL tokens: Boolean tokens as a means of combining query subsections: “and”, “or”, “not”. LIKE attribute tokens: “subject”, “content”.
For example here is a query with both Boolean and LIKE tokens:
(rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "bugs") (content "gnu"))) ==> "Queue = 'bugs' AND Content LIKE 'gnu'"
We can also express negation (note that the compiler produces "!=" and "NOT LIKE" for negation depending on the context):
(rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "bugs") (not (owner "Nobody")) (not (content "sprigz")) (status "new"))) ==> "Queue = 'licensing' AND Owner != 'Nobody' \ AND Content NOT LIKE 'sprigz' AND Status = 'new'"
Attribute tokens which match an attribute to a specific field such as: “owner”, “status” and “queue”. Temporal tokens which limit the search results to tickets within a certain time interval: “created” and “lastupdated”. Note that temporal keywords such as “created” always accept two arguments: BEFORE and AFTER. When either BEFORE or AFTER aren’t needed, use NIL instead.
One of the advantages of being able to express the TicketSQL queries as Emacs Lisp is to be able to express queries using Emacs Lisp functions.
Here is a slightly more involved example to illustrate:
(rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "bugs") (owner "email@example.com") (status "open") (lastupdated nil (format-time-string "%Y-%m-%d" (seconds-to-time (- (time-to-seconds (current-time)) (* 60 60 24 7))))))) ==> "Queue = 'bugs' AND Owner = 'firstname.lastname@example.org' AND Status = 'open' AND LastUpdated > '2009-03-30'"
Here is an example of how the ticket browser and compiler can be used in function calls:
(defun rt-liber-display-ticket (ticket-id) "Display ticket with TICKET-ID in the ticket-browser." (interactive "MTicket ID: ") (rt-liber-browse-query (rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "complaints") (id ticket-id)))))
The ticket browser is a special buffer which provides a convenient interface to the results of a server query. The ticket browser can be started by invoking: (rt-liber-browse-query QUERY), where QUERY is a TicketSQL query. The TicketSQL query can be entered manually as a string or as the return value of the query compiler.
Runs QUERY against the server and launches the browser.
If NEW is non-nil then the query results will be displayed in a new buffer, otherwise the query results will override the contents of the existing ticket browser buffer. If NEW is a string then that will be the name of the new buffer.
The TicketSQL query can be the return value of the query compiler. For example:
(rt-liber-browse-query (rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "bugs") (content "gnu")))
Since the return value of the query compiler is just a TicketSQL string, the following is equivalent:
(rt-liber-browse-query "Queue = 'bugs' AND Content LIKE 'gnu'")
The ticket browser defines a number of commands:
Bury the ticket browser buffer.
Move point to the next ticket.
Move point to the previous ticket.
Visit the ticket at point in the See Ticket Viewer.
Refresh the contents of the browser buffer.
Refresh the contents of the browser buffer. Return point to the current ticket after the refresh (if possible).
Mark the ticket as spam.
Delete marked tickets as spam (requires rt-liberation-multi package).
Assign the ticket to a user.
Mark the ticket as “resolved”.
Mark the ticket as “open”.
Assign the ticket at point to rt-liber-username.
Scroll the text of the ticket browser upward.
Scroll the text of the ticket browser downward.
Move the ticket to a different queue.
Set the numerical priority level of the ticket at point.
|• Ticket Browser Display:||How tickets are displayed in the browser.|
|• Ticket Browser Sorting:||How tickets are sorted in the browser.|
|• Ticket Browser Filtering:||How to filter tickets out of the browser.|
|• Multiple Ticket Browsers:||More than one ticket browser buffer.|
The ticket browser displays the tickets in the browser by calling rt-liber-ticketlist-browser-redraw-f which can be changed and customized. Any implementation of rt-liber-ticketlist-browser-redraw-f must leave point at the end of the ticket text.
The ticket data itself can be displayed using rt-liberation ticket format string %-sequences:
ID number of the ticket in the RT database.
Ticket creation time. The format to display the time is specified in the variable rt-liber-browser-time-format-string.
Ticket status (“open”, “new” etc.)
Whether the ticket is resolved.
Creator of the ticket.
Owner of the ticket.
The queue originating the ticket.
The numerical priority of the ticket
Here is an example implementation of rt-liber-ticketlist-browser-redraw-f showing the use of the %-sequences. Note the use of text properties to add color to ticket text. The use of text properties as opposed to font-locking is meant to ease customization because otherwise any change in ticket display would break the font-locking regular expressions.
(defun rt-liber-ticketlist-browser-redraw-f (ticket) "Display TICKET." (insert (rt-liber-format "[%c] %i" ticket)) (add-text-properties (point-at-bol) (point-at-eol) '(face rt-liber-ticket-face)) (newline) (insert (rt-liber-format " [%S] %s" ticket)) (newline) (insert (rt-liber-format " %o <== %R" ticket)))
The function rt-liber-high-priority-p can be used to apply a different face or text to a ticket if it is high priority. A ticket is considered high priority if its value is strictly higher than rt-liber-browser-priority-cutoff
The tickets in the browser are displayed by default in reverse chronological order. Ticket sorting is done by a call to rt-liber-browser-default-sorting-function.
Other sorting orders can be used by binding rt-liber-browser-default-sorting-function to a different function. To ease writing such functions rt-liberation provides two predicate functions to perform comparisons between ticket objects:
Return true if A is lexicographically less than B in FIELD.
Here is an example of sorting tickets lexicographically by owner name using rt-liber-lex-lessthan-p (note that you can feed rt-liber-lex-lessthan-p a date/time string and it will sort it just fine except that it wouldn’t make any sense):
(defun rt-liber-sort-by-owner (ticket-list) "Sort TICKET-LIST lexicographically by owner." (rt-liber-sort-ticket-list ticket-list #'(lambda (a b) (rt-liber-lex-lessthan-p a b "Owner"))))
Return t if A is chronologically less than B in FIELD.
Here is an example of sorting tickets lexicographically by owner name using rt-liber-time-lessthan-p (note that feeding rt-liber-time-lessthan-p anything but a date/time string, in this case “Created” contains a date, will result in an error being signaled).
(defun rt-liber-sort-by-time-created (ticket-list) "Sort TICKET-LIST in reverse chronological order." (reverse (rt-liber-sort-ticket-list ticket-list #'(lambda (a b) (rt-liber-time-lessthan-p a b "Created")))))
The Ticket Browser can also filter out (that is, not display) certain tickets based on particular criteria. This probably shouldn’t be used instead of a properly formed RT query, but when used in conjunction with correctly formulated queries it becomes a powerful tool.
During ticket display processing the Ticket Browser will call the function pointed to by rt-liber-browser-default-filter-function on each ticket, passing the function the ticket alist as a single argument. The function is set by default to rt-liber-default-filter-f, which is a function which will display all tickets and filter none.
If any tickets are filtered, the Ticket Browser will display the filtered ticket count at the bottom ticket listing.
Here is a simple example of how to filter out all of the tickets which have a status of “deleted”.
First we define a custom filter function. Note how it accepts a single argument, which is the ticket alist, and returns nil if the ticket is to be filtered.
(defun rt-liber-browser-deleted-filter (ticket) (not (and ticket (string= (cdr (assoc "Status" ticket)) "deleted"))))
Then we assign that function to be our default filtering function:
(setq rt-liber-browser-default-filter-function 'rt-liber-browser-deleted-filter)
It is sometimes useful to rename the ticket browser buffer to something more informative than the default rt-liber-browser-buffer-name, especially if there are multiple ticket browsers.
Changing a ticket browser’s name can be done normally with ‘rename-buffer’, but it is also possible to name the ticket browser when it is created. In the following example two ticket browser buffers will be created displaying the query results and named “*updated by supervisor*” and “*new tickets*” respectively:
(defun rt-liber-daily-rounds () (interactive) (rt-liber-browse-query (rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "complaints") (owner "lem.e.tweakit") (status "open") (lastupdatedby "molly.manager"))) "*updated by supervisor*") (rt-liber-browse-query (rt-liber-compile-query (and (queue "complaints") (owner "Nobody") (status "new"))) "*new tickets*"))
The ticket viewer is an interface for viewing the contents of a ticket and for sending answers.
The ticket viewer provides key-bindings to help compose emails to send to the RT email interface. The key-bindings for composing email described below are generic, what actually happens when you invoke them depends on the email-backend system you have installed into rt-liberation. rt-liberation-gnus.el provides integration with Gnus, See Gnus Integration.
Bury the ticket viewer buffer.
Move to the next section in ticket.
Move to the last section.
Move point to the previous section in ticket.
Visit the current ticket in a Web browser.
Compose an answer to the current ticket. The content section around point will be inserted into the email body and commented out.
Comment on the ticket using the current context
Refresh and redisplay the current ticket.
Scroll text of ticket viewer upward.
Scroll text of ticket viewer downward.
Display the associated ticket in the ticket browser.
The file rt-liberation-gnus.el implements integration with Gnus for composing emails. To enable the feature, ‘require’ it after loading rt-liberation:
In order for rt-liberation-gnus to be useful a few variables need to be specialized. The following is example code which sets these variables. Below is a thorough description of those variables.
(setq rt-liber-gnus-comment-address "email@example.com" rt-liber-gnus-address "firstname.lastname@example.org" rt-liber-gnus-subject-name "ourserver.org")
rt-liber-gnus-address is the email address which is configured in the RT server email interface for sending a response to the ticket’s requestor.
rt-liber-gnus-comment-address is the email address which is configured in the RT server email interface for adding a comment under the ticket in question.
rt-liber-gnus-subject-name is a string, typically included at the beginning of the square brackets in the subject. The string is a part of the subject line which helps the RT server recognize the email.
Gnus posting styles controlled by gnus-posting-styles can be customized for rt-liberation-gnus by using the variable rt-liber-gnus-p, which is only non-nil when rt-liberation-gnus launches a Gnus message buffer.
Here is example code which uses rt-liber-gnus-p to override the signature in the default posting style with one special to rt-liberation. Headers can be added and removed in a similar manner.
(setq gnus-posting-styles '((".*" (name "Lemm E. Hackitt") (address "Lemm@hack.it") (signature-file "~/sig.txt") ("X-Ethics" "Use GNU")) (rt-liber-gnus-p (signature-file "~/rt-liber-sig.txt"))))
Once rt-liberation-gnus is loaded and customized the key-bindings in the Viewer will be able to call into it, See Ticket Viewer.
The functions in rt-liberation-update.el help keep up with updates to the ticket database. To enable the feature, ‘require’ it after loading rt-liberation:
Then set rt-liber-update-default-queue to be the name of the queue to watch for updates. For example:
(setq rt-liber-update-default-queue "complaints")
rt-liber-update is an interactive function which runs a query
against the RT server asking for the tickets which have been updated
since the time
rt-liber-update was last run (each time it runs,
it leaves a time-stamp). If no time-stamp is found, for instance when
rt-liber-update for the first time, today’s date is
With the NO-UPDATE prefix,
rt-liber-update will not update the
time-stamp so that the next invocation will produce the same result.
The extension rt-liberation-multi.el implements performing batch operations on groups of tickets. It works in two stages: First mark an arbitrary number of tickets within the same buffer then call a batch operation function on them. The batch operation functions work the same way as function which work on single tickets only that they iterate through all of the marked tickets.
To enable batch operations first load rt-liberation-multi.el:
Mark the ticket at point for future action. If the ticket at point is already marked then unmark it.
Set the status of all the marked tickets to “open”.
Set the status of all the marked tickets to “resolved.
Assign all of the marked tickets to NAME.
Set the status of all the marked tickets to “is-spam” and delete.
rt-liberation-storage.el implements associating arbitrary ancillary data with tickets. The data is stored locally and is not sent to the RT server.
To enable local storage first load rt-liberation-storage.el:
Then enable the display of ancillary data with:
(setq rt-liber-anc-p t)
The associated data is edited and displayed in the ticket browser with the following command key:
Associate text with the ticket at point. You will be prompted to enter a string of text.
Once text is associated with a ticket it will be displayed alongside that ticket in the ticket browser. This particular feature lends itself to creating private annotations about tickets.
The implementation distributed with rt-liberation allows associating text with tickets but is not limited to text. The same implementation can be extended to associate any arbitrary data with any ticket.
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Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party’s predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor’s “contributor version”.
A contributor’s “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor’s essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.
A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Copyright (C) year name of author This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
program Copyright (C) year name of author This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.
The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html.
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
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