Source code for gui.image

##  This file is part of pyFormex 2.0  (Mon Sep 14 12:29:05 CEST 2020)
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"""Saving OpenGL renderings to image files.

This module defines some functions that can be used to save the
OpenGL rendering and the pyFormex GUI to image files. There are even
provisions for automatic saving to a series of files and creating
a movie from these images.

from OpenGL import GL

import pyformex as pf
from pyformex import Path
from pyformex.gui import QtGui
from pyformex import utils
from pyformex.gui.qtutils import relPos

# The image formats recognized by pyFormex
image_formats_qt = []
image_formats_qtr = []
image_formats_gl2ps = []
image_formats_fromeps = []

[docs]def imageFormats(mode='w'): """Return a list of the valid image formats. image formats are lower case strings as 'png', 'gif', 'ppm', 'eps', etc. The available image formats are derived from the installed software. Parameters: - `mode`: 'w' or 'r', for formats that can be written or read. """ if mode == 'r': return image_formats_qtr else: return image_formats_qt + image_formats_gl2ps + image_formats_fromeps
# global parameters for multisave mode multisave = None # imported module gl2ps = None
[docs]def initialize(): """Initialize the image module.""" global image_formats_qt, image_formats_qtr, image_formats_gl2ps, image_formats_fromeps, gl2ps, _producer, _gl2ps_types # Find interesting supporting software utils.External.has('imagemagick') # Set some globals pf.debug("Loading Image Formats", pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) image_formats_qt = [f.toStr() for f in QtGui.QImageWriter.supportedImageFormats()] image_formats_qtr = [f.toStr() for f in QtGui.QImageReader.supportedImageFormats()] if pf.cfg['gui/imagesfromeps']: pf.image_formats_qt = [] if utils.Module.has('gl2ps'): import gl2ps _producer = pf.Version() + ' (%s)' % pf.cfg['help/website', ''] _gl2ps_types = { 'ps': gl2ps.GL2PS_PS, 'eps': gl2ps.GL2PS_EPS, 'tex': gl2ps.GL2PS_TEX, 'pdf': gl2ps.GL2PS_PDF, } if utils.Module.check('gl2ps', '>=1.03'): _gl2ps_types.update({ 'svg': gl2ps.GL2PS_SVG, 'pgf': gl2ps.GL2PS_PGF, }) image_formats_gl2ps = [fmt for fmt in _gl2ps_types] image_formats_fromeps = ['ppm', 'png', 'jpeg', 'rast', 'tiff', 'xwd', 'y4m'] pf.debug(""" Qt image types for saving: %s Qt image types for input: %s gl2ps image types: %s image types converted from EPS: %s""" % (image_formats_qt, image_formats_qtr, image_formats_gl2ps, image_formats_fromeps), pf.DEBUG.IMAGE|pf.DEBUG.INFO)
[docs]def checkImageFormat(fmt, verbose=True): """Checks image format; if verbose, warn if it is not. Returns the image format, or None if it is not OK. """ pf.debug("Format requested: %s" % fmt, pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) pf.debug("Formats available: %s" % imageFormats(), pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) if fmt in imageFormats(): if fmt == 'tex' and verbose: pf.warning("This will only write a LaTeX fragment to include the 'eps' image\nYou have to create the .eps image file separately.\n") return fmt else: if verbose: from pyformex.gui import draw draw.error("Sorry, can not save in %s format!\n" "I suggest you use 'png' format ;)"%fmt) return None
[docs]def imageFormatFromExt(ext): """Determine the image format from an extension. The extension may or may not have an initial dot and may be in upper or lower case. The format is equal to the extension characters in lower case. If the supplied extension is empty, the default format 'png' is returned. """ if len(ext) > 0: if ext[0] == '.': ext = ext[1:] fmt = ext.lower() else: fmt = 'png' return fmt
##### LOW LEVEL FUNCTIONS ##########
[docs]def save_canvas(canvas, fn, fmt=None, quality=-1, size=None, alpha=False): """Save the rendering on canvas as an image file. canvas specifies the qtcanvas rendering window. fn is the name of the file fmt is the image file format. The default is taken from the filename. """ # make sure we have the current content displayed (on top) canvas.makeCurrent() canvas.raise_() canvas.display() fn = Path(fn) if fmt is None: fmt = fn.lsuffix.strip('.') if fmt in image_formats_qt: pf.debug("Image format can be saved by Qt", pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) if size is None: # # Use direct grabbing from current buffer # GL.glFlush() pf.debug("Saving image from opengl buffer with size %sx%s" % canvas.getSize(), pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) qim = canvas.grabFrameBuffer(withAlpha=alpha) else: wc, hc = canvas.getSize() try: w, h = size except Exception: w, h = wc, hc pf.debug("Saving image from virtual buffer with size %sx%s" % (w, h), pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) qim = canvas.image(w, h, remove_alpha=not alpha) pf.debug("Image has alpha channel: %s" % qim.hasAlphaChannel()) print("SAVING %s in format %s with quality %s" % (fn, fmt, quality)) if, fmt, quality): sta = 0 else: sta = 1 elif fmt in image_formats_gl2ps: pf.debug("Image format can be saved by gl2ps", pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) sta = save_PS(canvas, fn, fmt) elif fmt in image_formats_fromeps: pf.debug("Image format can be converted from eps", pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) tmpeps = utils.TempFile(suffix='.eps') fneps = tmpeps.path save_PS(canvas, fneps, 'eps') if fneps.exists(): cmd = 'pstopnm -portrait -stdout %s' % fneps if fmt != 'ppm': cmd += '| pnmto%s > %s' % (fmt, fn) utils.command(cmd, shell=True) return sta
# initialize() if gl2ps: def save_PS(canvas, filename, filetype=None, title='', producer='', viewport=None): """ Export OpenGL rendering to PostScript/PDF/TeX format. Exporting OpenGL renderings to PostScript is based on the PS2GL library by Christophe Geuzaine (, linked to Python by Toby Whites's wrapper ( This function is only defined if the gl2ps module is found. The filetype should be one of 'ps', 'eps', 'pdf' or 'tex'. If not specified, the type is derived from the file extension. In case of the 'tex' filetype, two files are written: one with the .tex extension, and one with .eps extension. """ fp = open(filename, "wb") if filetype: filetype = _gl2ps_types[filetype] else: s = filename.lower() for ext in _gl2ps_types: if s.endswith('.'+ext): filetype = _gl2ps_types[ext] break if not filetype: filetype = gl2ps.GL2PS_EPS if not title: title = filename if not viewport: viewport = GL.glGetIntegerv(GL.GL_VIEWPORT) bufsize = 0 state = gl2ps.GL2PS_OVERFLOW opts = gl2ps.GL2PS_SILENT | gl2ps.GL2PS_SIMPLE_LINE_OFFSET | gl2ps.GL2PS_USE_CURRENT_VIEWPORT ##| gl2ps.GL2PS_NO_BLENDING | gl2ps.GL2PS_OCCLUSION_CULL | gl2ps.GL2PS_BEST_ROOT ##color = GL[[0.,0.,0.,0.]] #print("VIEWPORT %s" % str(viewport)) #print(fp) viewport=None while state == gl2ps.GL2PS_OVERFLOW: bufsize += 1024*1024 gl2ps.gl2psBeginPage(title, _producer, viewport, filetype, gl2ps.GL2PS_BSP_SORT, opts, GL.GL_RGBA, 0, None, 0, 0, 0, bufsize, fp, '') canvas.display() GL.glFinish() state = gl2ps.gl2psEndPage() fp.close() return 0
[docs]def save_window(filename, format, quality=-1, windowname=None, crop=None): """Save a window as an image file. This function needs a filename AND format. If a window is specified, the named window is saved. Else, the main pyFormex window is saved. If crop is given, the specified rectangle is cropped. If crop='canvas', windowname is set to main pyFormex window and crop to canvas rectangle. In all cases, the GUI and current canvas are raised. """ pf.GUI.raise_() pf.GUI.repaint() pf.GUI.toolbar.repaint() pf.GUI.update() pf.canvas.makeCurrent() pf.canvas.raise_() pf.canvas.update() if crop == 'canvas': windowname = pf.GUI.windowTitle() x, y = relPos(pf.canvas) crop = (x, y, pf.canvas.width(), pf.canvas.height()) if windowname is None: windowname = pf.GUI.windowTitle() return save_window_rect(filename, format, quality, windowname, crop)
[docs]def save_window_rect(filename, format, quality=-1, window='root', crop=None): """Save a rectangular part of the screen to a an image file. crop: (x,y,w,h) """ options = '' if crop: x, y, w, h = crop options += ' -crop "%sx%s+%s+%s"' % (w, h, x, y) cmd = 'import -window "%s" %s %s:%s' % (window, options, format, filename) # We need to use shell=True because window name might contain spaces # thus we need to add quotes, but these are not stripped off when # splitting the command line. # TODO: utils should probably be changed to strip quotes after splitting P = utils.command(cmd, shell=True) if P.returncode: # He, isn't this standard with utils.command? print(P.returncode) print(P.stderr) print(P.stdout) return P.returncode
#### USER FUNCTIONS ################
[docs]def save(filename=None, window=False, multi=False, hotkey=True, autosave=False, border=False, grab=False, format=None, quality=-1, size=None, verbose=False, alpha=True, rootcrop=None): """Saves an image to file or Starts/stops multisave mode. With a filename and multi==False (default), the current viewport rendering is saved to the named file. With a filename and multi==True, multisave mode is started. Without a filename, multisave mode is turned off. Two subsequent calls starting multisave mode without an intermediate call to turn it off, do not cause an error. The first multisave mode will implicitely be ended before starting the second. In multisave mode, each call to saveNext() will save an image to the next generated file name. Filenames are generated by incrementing a numeric part of the name. If the supplied filename (after removing the extension) has a trailing numeric part, subsequent images will be numbered continuing from this number. Otherwise a numeric part '-000' will be added to the filename. If window is True, the full pyFormex window is saved. If window and border are True, the window decorations will be included. If window is False, only the current canvas viewport is saved. If grab is True, the external 'import' program is used to grab the window from the screen buffers. This is required by the border and window options. If hotkey is True, a new image will be saved by hitting the 'S' key. If autosave is True, a new image will be saved on each execution of the 'draw' function. If neither hotkey nor autosave are True, images can only be saved by executing the saveNext() function from a script. If no format is specified, it is derived from the filename extension. fmt should be one of the valid formats as returned by imageFormats() If verbose=True, error/warnings are activated. This is usually done when this function is called from the GUI. """ #print "SAVE: quality=%s" % quality global multisave if rootcrop is not None: pf.warning(" does no longer support the 'rootcrop' option") # Leave multisave mode if no filename or starting new multisave mode if multisave and (filename is None or multi): print("Leave multisave mode") if multisave[6]: pf.GUI.signals.SAVE.disconnect(saveNext) multisave = None if filename is None: return filename = Path(filename) # Get/Check format if format is None: format = filename.lsuffix.strip('.') format = checkImageFormat(format) if not format: return if multi: # Start multisave mode names = utils.NameSequence(filename) while Path(names.peek()).exists(): next(names) print("Start multisave mode to files: %s (%s)" % (, format)) if hotkey: pf.GUI.signals.SAVE.connect(saveNext) if verbose: pf.warning("Each time you hit the '%s' key,\nthe image will be saved to the next number." % pf.cfg['keys/save']) multisave = (names, format, quality, size, window, border, hotkey, autosave, grab) print("MULTISAVE %s "% str(multisave)) return multisave is None else: # Save the image if grab: # Grab from X server buffers (needs external) # # TODO: configure command to grab screen rectangle # if window: if border: windowname = 'root' crop = pf.GUI.frameGeometry().getRect() else: windowname = None crop = None else: windowname = None crop = 'canvas' sta = save_window(filename, format, quality, windowname=windowname, crop=crop) else: # Get from OpenGL rendering if size == pf.canvas.getSize(): # TODO: # We could grab from the OpenGL buffers here!! size = None # Render in an off-screen buffer and grab from there # # TODO: the offscreen buffer should be properly initialized # according to the current canvas # sta = save_canvas(pf.canvas, filename, format, quality, size, alpha) if sta: pf.debug("Error while saving image %s" % filename, pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) else: print("Image file %s written" % filename) return
# Keep the old name for compatibility saveImage = save
[docs]def saveNext(): """In multisave mode, saves the next image. This is a quiet function that does nothing if multisave was not activated. It can thus safely be called on regular places in scripts where one would like to have a saved image and then either activate the multisave mode or not. """ if multisave: names, format, quality, size, window, border, hotkey, autosave, grab = multisave name = next(names) save(name, window, False, hotkey, autosave, border, grab, format, quality, size, False)
[docs]def changeBackgroundColorXPM(fn, color): """Changes the background color of an .xpm image. This changes the background color of an .xpm image to the given value. fn is the filename of an .xpm image. color is a string with the new background color, e.g. in web format ('#FFF' or '#FFFFFF' is white). A special value 'None' may be used to set a transparent background. The current background color is selected from the lower left pixel. """ t = open(fn).readlines() c = '' for l in t[::-1]: if l.startswith('"'): c = l[1] print("Found '%s' as background character" % c) break if not c: print("Can not change background color of '%s' " % fn) return for i, l in enumerate(t): if l.startswith('"%s c ' % c): t[i] = '"%s c None",\n' % c break f = open(fn, 'w') f.writelines(t) f.close()
[docs]def saveIcon(fn, size=32, transparent=True): """Save the current rendering as an icon.""" if not fn.endswith('.xpm'): fn += '.xpm' save_canvas(pf.canvas, fn, fmt='xpm', size=(size, size)) print("Saved icon to file %s in %s" % (fn, Path.cwd())) if transparent: changeBackgroundColorXPM(fn, 'None')
[docs]def autoSaveOn(): """Returns True if autosave multisave mode is currently on. Use this function instead of directly accessing the autosave variable. """ return multisave and multisave[-2]
[docs]def createMovie(files, encoder='convert', outfn='output', **kargs): """Create a movie from a saved sequence of images. Parameters: - `files`: a list of filenames, or a string with one or more filenames separated by whitespace. The filenames can also contain wildcards interpreted by the shell. - `encoder`: string: the external program to be used to create the movie. This will also define the type of output file, and the extra parameters that can be passed. The external program has to be installed on the computer. The default is `convert`, which will create animated gif. Other possible values are 'mencoder' and 'ffmeg', creating meg4 encode movies from jpeg input files. - `outfn`: string: output file name (not including the extension). Default is output. Other parameters may be passed and may be needed, depending on the converter program used. Thus, for the default 'convert' program, each extra keyword parameter will be translated to an option '-keyword value' for the command. Example:: createMovie('images*.png',delay=1,colors=256) will create an animated gif 'output.gif'. """ outfn = path(outfn) print("Encoding %s" % files) if isinstance(files, list): files = ' '.join(files) if encoder == 'convert': outfile = outfn.with_suffix('.gif') cmd= "convert " + " ".join( [f"-{k} {kargs[k]}" for k in kargs]) + f" {files} {outfile}" elif encoder == 'mencoder': outfile = outfn.with_suffix('.avi') cmd = (f"mencoder \"mf://{files}\" -o {outfile} -mf fps={kargs['fps']} " f"-ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=msmpeg4v2:vbitrate={kargs['vbirate']}") else: outfile = outfn.with_suffix('.mp4') cmd = f"ffmpeg -qscale 1 -r 1 -i {files} output.mp4" pf.debug(cmd, pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) P = utils.command(cmd) print("Created file %s" % outfile.resolve()) return P.returncode
[docs]def saveMovie(filename, format, windowname=None): """Create a movie from the pyFormex window.""" if windowname is None: windowname = pf.GUI.windowTitle() pf.GUI.raise_() pf.GUI.repaint() pf.GUI.toolbar.repaint() pf.GUI.update() pf.canvas.makeCurrent() pf.canvas.raise_() pf.canvas.update() windowid = windowname cmd = "xvidcap --fps 5 --window %s --file %s" % (windowid, filename) pf.debug(cmd, pf.DEBUG.IMAGE) P = utils.command(cmd) return P.returncode
if not pf.sphinx: initialize() ### End