Theory Ring_ZF

theory Ring_ZF
imports AbelianGroup_ZF
(*
    This file is a part of IsarMathLib - 
    a library of formalized mathematics for Isabelle/Isar.

    Copyright (C) 2005, 2006  Slawomir Kolodynski

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header{*\isaheader{Ring\_ZF.thy}*}

theory Ring_ZF imports AbelianGroup_ZF

begin

text{*This theory file covers basic facts about rings.*}

section{*Definition and basic properties*}

text{*In this section we define what is a ring and list the basic properties
  of rings. *}

text{*We say that three sets $(R,A,M)$ form a ring if $(R,A)$ is an abelian 
  group, $(R,M)$ is a monoid and $A$ is distributive with respect to $M$ on 
  $R$. $A$ represents the additive operation on $R$. 
  As such it is a subset of $(R\times R)\times R$ (recall that in ZF set theory
  functions are sets).
  Similarly $M$ represents the multiplicative operation on $R$ and is also
  a subset of $(R\times R)\times R$.
  We  don't require the multiplicative operation to be commutative in the 
  definition of a ring.*}


definition
  "IsAring(R,A,M) ≡ IsAgroup(R,A) ∧ (A {is commutative on} R) ∧ 
  IsAmonoid(R,M) ∧ IsDistributive(R,A,M)"

text{*  We also define the notion of having no zero divisors. In
  standard notation the ring has no zero divisors if for all $a,b \in R$ we have 
  $a\cdot b = 0$ implies $a = 0$ or $b = 0$.
  *}

definition
  "HasNoZeroDivs(R,A,M) ≡ (∀a∈R. ∀b∈R. 
  M`⟨ a,b⟩ = TheNeutralElement(R,A) -->
  a = TheNeutralElement(R,A) ∨ b = TheNeutralElement(R,A))";

text{*Next we define a locale that will be used when considering rings.*}

locale ring0 =

  fixes R and A and M 
 
  assumes ringAssum: "IsAring(R,A,M)"

  fixes ringa (infixl "\<ra>" 90)
  defines ringa_def [simp]: "a\<ra>b ≡ A`⟨ a,b⟩"

  fixes ringminus ("\<rm> _" 89)
  defines ringminus_def [simp]: "(\<rm>a) ≡ GroupInv(R,A)`(a)"

  fixes ringsub (infixl "\<rs>" 90)
  defines ringsub_def [simp]: "a\<rs>b ≡ a\<ra>(\<rm>b)"

  fixes ringm (infixl "·" 95)
  defines ringm_def [simp]: "a·b ≡ M`⟨ a,b⟩"

  fixes ringzero ("\<zero>")
  defines ringzero_def [simp]: "\<zero> ≡ TheNeutralElement(R,A)"

  fixes ringone ("\<one>")
  defines ringone_def [simp]: "\<one> ≡ TheNeutralElement(R,M)"

  fixes ringtwo ("\<two>")
  defines ringtwo_def [simp]: "\<two> ≡ \<one>\<ra>\<one>"

  fixes ringsq ("_2" [96] 97)
  defines ringsq_def [simp]: "a2 ≡ a·a"

text{*In the @{text "ring0"} context we can use theorems proven in some 
  other contexts.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L1: shows 
  "monoid0(R,M)"
  "group0(R,A)" 
  "A {is commutative on} R"
  using ringAssum IsAring_def group0_def monoid0_def by auto;

text{*The additive operation in a ring is distributive with respect to the
  multiplicative operation.*}

lemma (in ring0) ring_oper_distr: assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows 
  "a·(b\<ra>c) = a·b \<ra> a·c" 
  "(b\<ra>c)·a = b·a \<ra> c·a"
  using ringAssum assms IsAring_def IsDistributive_def by auto;

text{*Zero and one of the ring are elements of the ring. The negative of zero
  is zero.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L2: 
  shows "\<zero>∈R"  "\<one>∈R"   "(\<rm>\<zero>) = \<zero>"
  using Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_2_L2 monoid0.unit_is_neutral 
    group0.group_inv_of_one by auto;
  
text{*The next lemma lists some properties of a ring that require one element
  of a ring.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L3: assumes "a∈R"
  shows 
  "(\<rm>a) ∈ R"
  "(\<rm>(\<rm>a)) = a"
  "a\<ra>\<zero> = a" 
  "\<zero>\<ra>a = a" 
  "a·\<one> = a" 
  "\<one>·a = a" 
  "a\<rs>a = \<zero>" 
  "a\<rs>\<zero> = a"
  "\<two>·a = a\<ra>a"
  "(\<rm>a)\<ra>a = \<zero>"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.inverse_in_group group0.group_inv_of_inv 
    group0.group0_2_L6 group0.group0_2_L2 monoid0.unit_is_neutral 
    Ring_ZF_1_L2 ring_oper_distr
  by auto;

text{*Properties that require two elements of a ring.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L4: assumes A1: "a∈R" "b∈R"
  shows 
  "a\<ra>b ∈ R" 
  "a\<rs>b ∈ R" 
  "a·b ∈ R" 
  "a\<ra>b = b\<ra>a"
  using ringAssum assms Ring_ZF_1_L1 Ring_ZF_1_L3 
    group0.group0_2_L1 monoid0.group0_1_L1 
    IsAring_def IsCommutative_def
  by auto;

text{*Cancellation of an element on both sides of equality. 
  This is a property of groups, written in the (additive) notation
  we use for the additive operation in rings.
  *}

lemma (in ring0) ring_cancel_add: 
  assumes A1: "a∈R" "b∈R" and A2: "a \<ra> b = a"
  shows "b = \<zero>"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_2_L7 by simp;

text{*Any element of a ring multiplied by zero is zero.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L6: 
  assumes A1: "x∈R" shows "\<zero>·x = \<zero>"   "x·\<zero> = \<zero>"
proof -
  let ?a = "x·\<one>";
  let ?b = "x·\<zero>"
  let ?c = "\<one>·x"
  let ?d = "\<zero>·x"
  from A1 have 
    "?a \<ra> ?b = x·(\<one> \<ra> \<zero>)"   "?c \<ra> ?d = (\<one> \<ra> \<zero>)·x"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L2 ring_oper_distr by auto;
  moreover have "x·(\<one> \<ra> \<zero>) = ?a" "(\<one> \<ra> \<zero>)·x = ?c"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L3 by auto;
  ultimately have "?a \<ra> ?b = ?a" and T1: "?c \<ra> ?d = ?c" 
    by auto;
  moreover from A1 have 
    "?a ∈ R"  "?b ∈ R" and T2: "?c ∈ R"  "?d ∈ R"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto;
  ultimately have "?b = \<zero>" using ring_cancel_add
    by blast;
  moreover from T2 T1 have "?d = \<zero>" using ring_cancel_add
    by blast;
  ultimately show "x·\<zero> = \<zero>"  "\<zero>·x = \<zero>" by auto;
qed;

text{*Negative can be pulled out of a product.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L7: 
  assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R"
  shows 
  "(\<rm>a)·b = \<rm>(a·b)" 
  "a·(\<rm>b) = \<rm>(a·b)"
  "(\<rm>a)·b = a·(\<rm>b)"
proof -
  from A1 have I: 
    "a·b ∈ R" "(\<rm>a) ∈ R" "((\<rm>a)·b) ∈ R" 
    "(\<rm>b) ∈ R" "a·(\<rm>b) ∈ R"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto;
  moreover have "(\<rm>a)·b \<ra> a·b = \<zero>" 
    and II: "a·(\<rm>b) \<ra> a·b = \<zero>"
  proof -
    from A1 I have 
      "(\<rm>a)·b \<ra> a·b = ((\<rm>a)\<ra> a)·b"
      "a·(\<rm>b) \<ra> a·b= a·((\<rm>b)\<ra>b)"
      using ring_oper_distr by auto;
    moreover from A1 have 
      "((\<rm>a)\<ra> a)·b = \<zero>" 
      "a·((\<rm>b)\<ra>b) = \<zero>"
      using Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_2_L6 Ring_ZF_1_L6
      by auto;
    ultimately show 
      "(\<rm>a)·b \<ra> a·b = \<zero>" 
      "a·(\<rm>b) \<ra> a·b = \<zero>" 
      by auto;
  qed;
  ultimately show "(\<rm>a)·b = \<rm>(a·b)"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_2_L9 by simp
  moreover from I II show "a·(\<rm>b) = \<rm>(a·b)"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_2_L9 by simp;   
  ultimately show "(\<rm>a)·b = a·(\<rm>b)" by simp;
qed;

text{*Minus times minus is plus.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L7A: assumes "a∈R"  "b∈R"
  shows "(\<rm>a)·(\<rm>b) = a·b"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L7 Ring_ZF_1_L4
  by simp;

text{*Subtraction is distributive with respect to multiplication.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L8: assumes "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows 
  "a·(b\<rs>c) = a·b \<rs> a·c"  
  "(b\<rs>c)·a = b·a \<rs> c·a"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L3 ring_oper_distr Ring_ZF_1_L7 Ring_ZF_1_L4
  by auto;

text{*Other basic properties involving two elements of a ring.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L9: assumes "a∈R"  "b∈R"
  shows 
  "(\<rm>b)\<rs>a = (\<rm>a)\<rs>b" 
  "(\<rm>(a\<ra>b)) = (\<rm>a)\<rs>b"  
  "(\<rm>(a\<rs>b)) = ((\<rm>a)\<ra>b)"
  "a\<rs>(\<rm>b) = a\<ra>b"
  using assms ringAssum IsAring_def 
    Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_4_L4  group0.group_inv_of_inv
  by auto;

text{*If the difference of two element is zero, then those elements
  are equal.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L9A: 
  assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R" and A2: "a\<rs>b = \<zero>"
  shows "a=b"
proof -
  from A1 A2 have
    "group0(R,A)"
    "a∈R"  "b∈R"
    "A`⟨a,GroupInv(R,A)`(b)⟩ = TheNeutralElement(R,A)"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L1 by auto;
  then show "a=b" by (rule group0.group0_2_L11A);
qed;

text{*Other basic properties involving three elements of a ring.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L10: 
  assumes "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows 
  "a\<ra>(b\<ra>c) = a\<ra>b\<ra>c"
  (*"a\<ra>(b\<rs>c) = a\<ra>b\<rs>c"*)
  "a\<rs>(b\<ra>c) = a\<rs>b\<rs>c"
  "a\<rs>(b\<rs>c) = a\<rs>b\<ra>c"
  using assms ringAssum Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group_oper_assoc 
    IsAring_def group0.group0_4_L4A by auto;

text{*Another property with three elements.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L10A: 
  assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows "a\<ra>(b\<rs>c) = a\<ra>b\<rs>c"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L10 by simp;

text{*Associativity of addition and multiplication.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L11: 
  assumes "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows 
  "a\<ra>b\<ra>c = a\<ra>(b\<ra>c)"
  "a·b·c = a·(b·c)"
  using assms ringAssum Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group_oper_assoc
    IsAring_def IsAmonoid_def IsAssociative_def
  by auto;

text{*An interpretation of what it means that a ring has 
  no zero divisors.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L12: 
  assumes "HasNoZeroDivs(R,A,M)"
  and "a∈R"  "a≠\<zero>"  "b∈R"  "b≠\<zero>"
  shows "a·b≠\<zero>" 
  using assms HasNoZeroDivs_def by auto;

text{*In rings with no zero divisors we can cancel nonzero factors.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L12A: 
  assumes A1: "HasNoZeroDivs(R,A,M)" and A2: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  and A3: "a·c = b·c" and A4: "c≠\<zero>" 
  shows "a=b"
proof -
  from A2 have T: "a·c ∈ R"  "a\<rs>b ∈ R"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto
  with A1 A2 A3 have "a\<rs>b = \<zero> ∨ c=\<zero>"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L8 HasNoZeroDivs_def
    by simp;
  with A2 A4 have "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "a\<rs>b = \<zero>" 
    by auto
  then show "a=b" by (rule Ring_ZF_1_L9A);
qed;

text{*In rings with no zero divisors if two elements are different, 
  then after multiplying by a nonzero element they are still different.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L12B: 
  assumes A1: "HasNoZeroDivs(R,A,M)"  
  "a∈R"   "b∈R"   "c∈R"   "a≠b"   "c≠\<zero>" 
  shows  "a·c ≠ b·c"
  using A1 Ring_ZF_1_L12A by auto; (* A1 has to be here *)

text{*In rings with no zero divisors multiplying a nonzero element 
  by a nonone element changes the value.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L12C:
  assumes A1: "HasNoZeroDivs(R,A,M)" and 
  A2: "a∈R"  "b∈R" and A3: "\<zero>≠a"  "\<one>≠b"
  shows "a ≠ a·b"
proof -
  { assume "a = a·b"
    with A1 A2 have "a = \<zero> ∨ b\<rs>\<one> = \<zero>"
      using Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L8 
	Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L4 HasNoZeroDivs_def
      by simp;
    with A2 A3 have False
      using Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L9A by auto;
  } then show "a ≠ a·b" by auto;
qed;      

text{*If a square is nonzero, then the element is nonzero.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L13:
  assumes "a∈R"  and "a2 ≠ \<zero>"
  shows "a≠\<zero>"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L6 by auto;

text{*Square of an element and its opposite are the same.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L14:
  assumes "a∈R" shows "(\<rm>a)2 = ((a)2)"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L7A by simp;

text{*Adding zero to a set that is closed under addition results
  in a set that is also closed under addition. This is a property of groups.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L15: 
  assumes "H ⊆ R" and "H {is closed under} A"
  shows "(H ∪ {\<zero>}) {is closed under} A"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_2_L17 by simp;

text{*Adding zero to a set that is closed under multiplication results
  in a set that is also closed under multiplication.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L16:
  assumes A1: "H ⊆ R" and A2: "H {is closed under} M"
  shows "(H ∪ {\<zero>}) {is closed under} M"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L2 Ring_ZF_1_L6 IsOpClosed_def
  by auto;

text{*The ring is trivial iff $0=1$.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L17: shows "R = {\<zero>} <-> \<zero>=\<one>"
proof;
  assume "R = {\<zero>}"
  then show "\<zero>=\<one>" using Ring_ZF_1_L2
    by blast;
next assume A1: "\<zero> = \<one>"
  then have "R ⊆ {\<zero>}"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L6 by auto;
  moreover have "{\<zero>} ⊆ R" using Ring_ZF_1_L2 by auto;
  ultimately show "R = {\<zero>}" by auto;
qed;

text{*The sets $\{m\cdot x. x\in R\}$ and  $\{-m\cdot x. x\in R\}$
  are the same.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_1_L18: assumes A1: "m∈R"
  shows "{m·x. x∈R} = {(\<rm>m)·x. x∈R}"
proof
  { fix a assume "a ∈ {m·x. x∈R}"
    then obtain x where "x∈R" and "a = m·x"
      by auto;
    with A1 have "(\<rm>x) ∈ R"  and "a = (\<rm>m)·(\<rm>x)" 
      using Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L7A by auto;
    then have "a ∈ {(\<rm>m)·x. x∈R}"
      by auto;
  } then show "{m·x. x∈R} ⊆ {(\<rm>m)·x. x∈R}"
    by auto;
next 
  { fix a assume "a ∈ {(\<rm>m)·x. x∈R}"
    then obtain x where "x∈R" and "a = (\<rm>m)·x"
      by auto;
    with A1 have "(\<rm>x) ∈ R" and "a = m·(\<rm>x)"
      using Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L7 by auto;
    then have "a ∈ {m·x. x∈R}" by auto
  } then show "{(\<rm>m)·x. x∈R} ⊆ {m·x. x∈R}"
    by auto;
qed;

section{*Rearrangement lemmas*}

text{*In happens quite often that we want to show a fact like 
  $(a+b)c+d = (ac+d-e)+(bc+e)$in rings. 
  This is trivial in romantic math and probably there is a way to make 
  it trivial in formalized math. However, I don't know any other way than to
  tediously prove each such rearrangement when it is needed. This section 
  collects facts of this type.*}

text{*Rearrangements with two elements of a ring.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L1: assumes "a∈R" "b∈R" 
  shows "a\<ra>b·a = (b\<ra>\<one>)·a"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L2 ring_oper_distr Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L4
  by simp;

text{*Rearrangements with two elements and cancelling.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L1A: assumes "a∈R" "b∈R" 
  shows
  "a\<rs>b\<ra>b = a"
  "a\<ra>b\<rs>a = b"
  "(\<rm>a)\<ra>b\<ra>a = b"
  "(\<rm>a)\<ra>(b\<ra>a) = b"
  "a\<ra>(b\<rs>a) = b"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.inv_cancel_two group0.group0_4_L6A
  by auto;

text{*In commutative rings $a-(b+1)c = (a-d-c)+(d-bc)$. For unknown reasons 
  we have to use the raw set notation in the proof, otherwise all methods 
  fail.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L2: 
  assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"  "d∈R"
  shows "a\<rs>(b\<ra>\<one>)·c = (a\<rs>d\<rs>c)\<ra>(d\<rs>b·c)"
proof -;
  let ?B = "b·c" 
  from ringAssum have "A {is commutative on} R"
    using IsAring_def by simp;
  moreover from A1 have "a∈R" "?B ∈ R" "c∈R" "d∈R"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto;
  ultimately have "A`⟨a, GroupInv(R,A)`(A`⟨?B, c⟩)⟩ =
    A`⟨A`⟨A`⟨a, GroupInv(R, A)`(d)⟩,GroupInv(R, A)`(c)⟩,
    A`⟨d,GroupInv(R, A)`(?B)⟩⟩"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.group0_4_L8 by blast;
  with A1 show ?thesis 
    using Ring_ZF_1_L2 ring_oper_distr Ring_ZF_1_L3 by simp;
qed;

text{*Rerrangement about adding linear functions.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L3: 
  assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"  "d∈R"  "x∈R"
  shows "(a·x \<ra> b) \<ra> (c·x \<ra> d) = (a\<ra>c)·x \<ra> (b\<ra>d)"
proof -
  from A1 have 
    "group0(R,A)"
    "A {is commutative on} R"
    "a·x ∈ R"  "b∈R"  "c·x ∈ R"  "d∈R" 
    using Ring_ZF_1_L1 Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto;
  then have "A`⟨A`⟨ a·x,b⟩,A`⟨ c·x,d⟩⟩ = A`⟨A`⟨ a·x,c·x⟩,A`⟨ b,d⟩⟩"
    by (rule group0.group0_4_L8);
  with A1 show 
    "(a·x \<ra> b) \<ra> (c·x \<ra> d) = (a\<ra>c)·x \<ra> (b\<ra>d)"
    using ring_oper_distr by simp;
qed;

text{*Rearrangement with three elements*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L4: 
  assumes "M {is commutative on} R"
  and "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows "a·(b·c) = a·c·b"
  using assms IsCommutative_def Ring_ZF_1_L11
  by simp;

text{*Some other rearrangements with three elements.*}

lemma (in ring0) ring_rearr_3_elemA:
  assumes A1: "M {is commutative on} R" and 
  A2: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"
  shows 
  "a·(a·c) \<rs> b·(\<rm>b·c) = (a·a \<ra> b·b)·c"
  "a·(\<rm>b·c) \<ra> b·(a·c) = \<zero>"
proof -
  from A2 have T: 
    "b·c ∈ R"  "a·a ∈ R"  "b·b ∈ R"
    "b·(b·c) ∈ R"  "a·(b·c) ∈ R"
    using  Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto;
  with A2 show 
    "a·(a·c) \<rs> b·(\<rm>b·c) = (a·a \<ra> b·b)·c"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L7 Ring_ZF_1_L3 Ring_ZF_1_L11 
      ring_oper_distr by simp;
  from A2 T have 
    "a·(\<rm>b·c) \<ra> b·(a·c) = (\<rm>a·(b·c)) \<ra> b·a·c"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L7 Ring_ZF_1_L11 by simp;
  also from A1 A2 T have "… = \<zero>"
    using IsCommutative_def Ring_ZF_1_L11 Ring_ZF_1_L3
    by simp;
  finally show "a·(\<rm>b·c) \<ra> b·(a·c) = \<zero>"
    by simp;
qed;

text{*Some rearrangements with four elements. Properties of abelian groups.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L5: 
  assumes "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"  "d∈R"
  shows 
  "a \<rs> b \<rs> c \<rs> d = a \<rs> d \<rs> b \<rs> c"
  "a \<ra> b \<ra> c \<rs> d = a \<rs> d \<ra> b \<ra> c"
  "a \<ra> b \<rs> c \<rs> d = a \<rs> c \<ra> (b \<rs> d)"
  "a \<ra> b \<ra> c \<ra> d = a \<ra> c \<ra> (b \<ra> d)"
  using assms Ring_ZF_1_L1 group0.rearr_ab_gr_4_elemB
    group0.rearr_ab_gr_4_elemA by auto;

text{*Two big rearranegements with six elements, useful for
  proving properties of complex addition and multiplication.*}

lemma (in ring0) Ring_ZF_2_L6:
  assumes A1: "a∈R"  "b∈R"  "c∈R"  "d∈R"  "e∈R"  "f∈R"
  shows
  "a·(c·e \<rs> d·f) \<rs> b·(c·f \<ra> d·e) =
  (a·c \<rs> b·d)·e \<rs> (a·d \<ra> b·c)·f"
  "a·(c·f \<ra> d·e) \<ra> b·(c·e \<rs> d·f) =
  (a·c \<rs> b·d)·f \<ra> (a·d \<ra> b·c)·e"
  "a·(c\<ra>e) \<rs> b·(d\<ra>f) = a·c \<rs> b·d \<ra> (a·e \<rs> b·f)"
  "a·(d\<ra>f) \<ra> b·(c\<ra>e) = a·d \<ra> b·c \<ra> (a·f \<ra> b·e)"
proof -
  from A1 have T:
    "c·e ∈ R"  "d·f ∈ R"  "c·f ∈ R"  "d·e ∈ R"
    "a·c ∈ R"  "b·d ∈ R"  "a·d ∈ R"  "b·c ∈ R"
    "b·f ∈ R"  "a·e ∈ R"  "b·e ∈ R"  "a·f ∈ R"
    "a·c·e ∈ R"  "a·d·f ∈ R"
    "b·c·f ∈ R"  "b·d·e ∈ R"
    "b·c·e ∈ R"  "b·d·f ∈ R"
    "a·c·f ∈ R"  "a·d·e ∈ R"
    "a·c·e \<rs> a·d·f ∈ R"
    "a·c·e \<rs> b·d·e ∈ R"
    "a·c·f \<ra> a·d·e ∈ R"
    "a·c·f \<rs> b·d·f ∈ R"
    "a·c \<ra> a·e ∈ R"
    "a·d \<ra> a·f ∈ R"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L4 by auto;
  with A1 show "a·(c·e \<rs> d·f) \<rs> b·(c·f \<ra> d·e) =
    (a·c \<rs> b·d)·e \<rs> (a·d \<ra> b·c)·f"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L8 ring_oper_distr Ring_ZF_1_L11
      Ring_ZF_1_L10 Ring_ZF_2_L5 by simp;
  from A1 T show 
    "a·(c·f \<ra> d·e) \<ra> b·(c·e \<rs> d·f) =
    (a·c \<rs> b·d)·f \<ra> (a·d \<ra> b·c)·e"
    using Ring_ZF_1_L8 ring_oper_distr Ring_ZF_1_L11
    Ring_ZF_1_L10A Ring_ZF_2_L5 Ring_ZF_1_L10 
    by simp;
  from A1 T show 
    "a·(c\<ra>e) \<rs> b·(d\<ra>f) = a·c \<rs> b·d \<ra> (a·e \<rs> b·f)"
    "a·(d\<ra>f) \<ra> b·(c\<ra>e) = a·d \<ra> b·c \<ra> (a·f \<ra> b·e)"
    using ring_oper_distr Ring_ZF_1_L10 Ring_ZF_2_L5
    by auto;
qed;

end