(*

This file is a part of IsarMathLib -

a library of formalized mathematics written for Isabelle/Isar.

Copyright (C) 2005, 2006 Slawomir Kolodynski

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*)

header{*\isaheader{Group\_ZF\_1b.thy}*}

theory Group_ZF_1b imports Group_ZF

begin

text{* In a typical textbook a group is defined as a set $G$ with an

associative operation such that two conditions hold:

A: there is an element $e\in G$ such that for all

$g\in G$ we have $e\cdot g = g$ and $g\cdot e =g$. We call this element a

"unit" or a "neutral element" of the group.

B: for every $a\in G$ there exists a $b\in G$ such that $a\cdot b = e$,

where $e$ is the element of $G$ whose existence is guaranteed by A.

The validity of this definition is rather dubious to me, as condition

A does not define any specific element $e$ that can be referred to in

condition B - it merely states that a set of such units

$e$ is not empty. Of course it does work in the end as we can prove that

the set of such neutral elements has exactly one element, but still the definition

by itself is not valid. You just can't reference a variable bound by a quantifier

outside of the scope of that quantifier.

One way around this is to first use condition A to define

the notion of a monoid, then prove the uniqueness of $e$ and then use the

condition B to define groups.

Another way is to write conditions A and B together as follows:

$\exists_{e \in G} \ (\forall_{g \in G} \ e\cdot g = g \wedge g\cdot e = g)

\wedge (\forall_{a\in G}\exists_{b\in G}\ a\cdot b = e).$

This is rather ugly.

What I want to talk about is an amusing way to define groups directly

without any reference to the neutral elements. Namely, we can define

a group as a non-empty set $G$ with an associative operation "$\cdot $"

such that

C: for every $a,b\in G$ the equations $a\cdot x = b$ and

$y\cdot a = b$ can be solved in $G$.

This theory file aims at proving the equivalence of this

alternative definition with the usual definition of the group, as

formulated in @{text "Group_ZF.thy"}. The informal proofs come from an Aug. 14, 2005

post by buli on the matematyka.org forum. *}

section{*An alternative definition of group*}

text{*First we will define notation for writing about groups.*}

text{*We will use the multiplicative notation for the group operation. To do this, we

define a context (locale) that tells Isabelle

to interpret $a\cdot b$ as the value of function $P$ on the pair

$\langle a,b \rangle$.*}

locale group2 =

fixes P

fixes dot (infixl "·" 70)

defines dot_def [simp]: "a · b ≡ P`⟨a,b⟩";

text{*The next theorem states that a set $G$ with an associative operation

that satisfies condition C is a group, as defined in IsarMathLib

@{text "Group_ZF"} theory.*}

theorem (in group2) altgroup_is_group:

assumes A1: "G≠0" and A2: "P {is associative on} G"

and A3: "∀a∈G.∀b∈G. ∃x∈G. a·x = b"

and A4: "∀a∈G.∀b∈G. ∃y∈G. y·a = b"

shows "IsAgroup(G,P)"

proof -;

from A1 obtain a where "a∈G" by auto;

with A3 obtain x where "x∈G" and "a·x = a"

by auto;

from A4 `a∈G` obtain y where "y∈G" and "y·a = a"

by auto;

have I: "∀b∈G. b = b·x ∧ b = y·b"

proof;

fix b assume "b∈G"

with A4 `a∈G` obtain y⇩_{b}where "y⇩_{b}∈G"

and "y⇩_{b}·a = b" by auto;

from A3 `a∈G` `b∈G` obtain x⇩_{b}where "x⇩_{b}∈G"

and "a·x⇩_{b}= b" by auto;

from `a·x = a` `y·a = a` `y⇩_{b}·a = b` `a·x⇩_{b}= b`

have "b = y⇩_{b}·(a·x)" and "b = (y·a)·x⇩_{b}"

by auto;

moreover from A2 `a∈G` `x∈G` `y∈G` `x⇩_{b}∈G` `y⇩_{b}∈G` have

"(y·a)·x⇩_{b}= y·(a·x⇩_{b})" "y⇩_{b}·(a·x) = (y⇩_{b}·a)·x"

using IsAssociative_def by auto;

moreover from `y⇩_{b}·a = b` `a·x⇩_{b}= b` have

"(y⇩_{b}·a)·x = b·x" "y·(a·x⇩_{b}) = y·b"

by auto;

ultimately show "b = b·x ∧ b = y·b" by simp;

qed;

moreover have "x = y"

proof -;

from `x∈G` I have "x = y·x" by simp;

also from `y∈G` I have "y·x = y" by simp;

finally show "x = y" by simp;

qed;

ultimately have "∀b∈G. b·x = b ∧ x·b = b" by simp;

with A2 `x∈G` have "IsAmonoid(G,P)" using IsAmonoid_def by auto;

with A3 show "IsAgroup(G,P)"

using monoid0_def monoid0.unit_is_neutral IsAgroup_def

by simp;

qed;

text{* The converse of @{text "altgroup_is_group"}:

in every (classically defined) group condition C holds.

In informal mathematics we can say "Obviously

condition C holds in any group." In formalized mathematics the word "obviously"

is not in the language. The next theorem is proven in the context called

@{text "group0"} defined in the theory @{text "Group_ZF.thy"}. Similarly to the

@{text "group2"} that context defines $a\cdot b$ as $P\langle a,b\rangle$

It also defines notation related to the group inverse and

adds an assumption that the pair $(G,P)$ is a group

to all its theorems. This is why in the next theorem we don't

explicitely assume that $(G,P)$ is a group - this assumption

is implicit in the context.*}

theorem (in group0) group_is_altgroup: shows

"∀a∈G.∀b∈G. ∃x∈G. a·x = b" and "∀a∈G.∀b∈G. ∃y∈G. y·a = b"

proof -

{ fix a b assume "a∈G" "b∈G"

let ?x = "a¯· b"

let ?y = "b·a¯"

from `a∈G` `b∈G` have

"?x ∈ G" "?y ∈ G" and "a·?x = b" "?y·a = b"

using inverse_in_group group_op_closed inv_cancel_two

by auto;

hence "∃x∈G. a·x = b" and "∃y∈G. y·a = b" by auto;

} thus

"∀a∈G.∀b∈G. ∃x∈G. a·x = b" and

"∀a∈G.∀b∈G. ∃y∈G. y·a = b"

by auto;

qed;

end