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AE.1 Modos adjuntos

Los modos adjuntos son características optativas que ud. puede habilitar o deshabilitar. Por ejemplo, el modo Auto Fill es un modo adjunto en el cual SPC parte las líneas en los espacios entre palabras mientras ud. teclea. Todos los modos adjuntos son independientes entre sí y del modo principal seleccionado. La mayoría de los modos adjuntos indican cuándo están activos en la línea de modo; por ejemplo, `Fill' en la línea de modo significa que el modo Auto Fill está habilitado.

Agregue -mode al nombre de un modo adjunto para obtener el nombre del comando que habilita y deshabilita el modo. Por lo tanto, el comando para habilitar o desabilitar el modo Auto Fill se llama M-x auto-fill-mode. Estos comandos generalmente se invocan con M-x, pero puede aisgnar teclas a ellos si lo desea. Sin argumentos, la función habilita el modo si estaba deshabilitado, y viceversa. Esto se conoce como conmutar. Un argumento positivo siempre habilita el modo, y un argumento explícito de cero o negativo siempre lo deshabilita.

Algunos modos adjuntos son globales: cuando están activos, afectan todo lo que haga en la sesión de Emacs, en todos los búferes. Otros modos adjuntos son locales del búfer; se aplican solamente al búfer actual, de manera que puede habilitarlo en ciertos búferes y no en otros.

Para la mayoría de los modos adjuntos, el nombre del comando es también el nombre de una variable que controla directamente el modo. El modo se habilita siempre que el valor de la variable no sea nil, y el commando del modo adjunto funciona estableciendo la variable. Por ejemplo, el comando outline-minor-mode funciona estableciendo el valor de outline-minor-mode como variable; ésta es la variable que enciende y apaga directamente el modo adjunto Outline. Para comprobar si un modo adjunto dado se comporta de esta forma, use C-h v para pedir documentación del nombre de la variable.

These minor-mode variables provide a good way for Lisp programs to turn minor modes on and off; they are also useful in a file's local variables list. But please think twice before setting minor modes with a local variables list, because most minor modes are matter of user preference--other users editing the same file might not want the same minor modes you prefer.

The buffer-local minor modes include Abbrev mode, Auto Fill mode, Auto Save mode, Font-Lock mode, Glasses mode, ISO Accents mode, Outline minor mode, Overwrite mode, and Binary Overwrite mode.

Abbrev mode allows you to define abbreviations that automatically expand as you type them. For example, `amd' might expand to `abbrev mode'. @xref{Abbrevs}, for full information.

Auto Fill mode allows you to enter filled text without breaking lines explicitly. Emacs inserts newlines as necessary to prevent lines from becoming too long. @xref{Filling}.

Auto Save mode causes the contents of a buffer to be saved periodically to reduce the amount of work you can lose in case of a system crash. @xref{Auto Save}.

Enriched mode enables editing and saving of formatted text. @xref{Formatted Text}.

Flyspell mode automatically highlights misspelled words. @xref{Spelling}.

Font-Lock mode automatically highlights certain textual units found in programs, such as comments, strings, and function names being defined. This requires a window system that can display multiple fonts. @xref{Faces}.

ISO Accents mode makes the characters ``', `'', `"', `^', `/' and `~' combine with the following letter, to produce an accented letter in the ISO Latin-1 character set. The newer and more general feature of input methods more or less supersedes ISO Accents mode. @xref{Single-Byte Character Support}.

Outline minor mode provides the same facilities as the major mode called Outline mode; but since it is a minor mode instead, you can combine it with any major mode. @xref{Outline Mode}.

Overwrite mode causes ordinary printing characters to replace existing text instead of shoving it to the right. For example, if point is in front of the `B' in `FOOBAR', then in Overwrite mode typing a G changes it to `FOOGAR', instead of producing `FOOGBAR' as usual. In Overwrite mode, the command C-q inserts the next character whatever it may be, even if it is a digit--this gives you a way to insert a character instead of replacing an existing character.

The command overwrite-mode is an exception to the rule that commands which toggle minor modes are normally not bound to keys: it is bound to the INSERT function key. This is because many other programs bind INSERT to similar functions.

Binary Overwrite mode is a variant of Overwrite mode for editing binary files; it treats newlines and tabs like other characters, so that they overwrite other characters and can be overwritten by them. In Binary Overwrite mode, digits after C-q specify an octal character code, as usual.

The following minor modes normally apply to all buffers at once. Since each is enabled or disabled by the value of a variable, you can set them differently for particular buffers, by explicitly making the corresponding variables local in those buffers. @xref{Locals}.

Icomplete mode displays an indication of available completions when you are in the minibuffer and completion is active. @xref{Completion Options}.

Line Number mode enables continuous display in the mode line of the line number of point, and Column Number mode enables display of the column number. @xref{Mode Line}.

Scroll Bar mode gives each window a scroll bar (@pxref{Scroll Bars}). Menu Bar mode gives each frame a menu bar (@pxref{Menu Bars}). Both of these modes are enabled by default when you use the X Window System.

In Transient Mark mode, every change in the buffer contents "deactivates" the mark, so that commands that operate on the region will get an error. This means you must either set the mark, or explicitly "reactivate" it, before each command that uses the region. The advantage of Transient Mark mode is that Emacs can display the region highlighted (currently only when using X). @xref{Mark}.

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